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数控加工中心的近代工业文明发展史

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1540

数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)是当前(qian)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领域(yu)中(zhong)(zhong)应用最为(wei)广泛的加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)类机(ji)(ji)械(xie),在将(jiang)时间推移到上世(shi)纪初,当时虽(sui)然也有类似加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)类的机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)产品(pin)(pin),但(dan)都相(xiang)当的原(yuan)(yuan)始(shi),更(geng)(geng)谈不上采用当今(jin)(jin)数控(kong)形式的加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)来进行(xing)运作了,回顾(gu)百年我们不难发现,如今(jin)(jin)的加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)产品(pin)(pin),其实在很多的原(yuan)(yuan)理和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺方面还是和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)的原(yuan)(yuan)始(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺有着异曲同工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)之(zhi)妙,如今(jin)(jin)更(geng)(geng)多的加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)行(xing)业(ye)专(zhuan)家更(geng)(geng)多的会将(jiang)数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)专(zhuan)业(ye)的称为(wei)CNC加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)。

 

回顾(gu)历(li)史(shi)我(wo)(wo)(wo)们可以知(zhi)道,世界上第(di)一台正(zheng)式(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)车床(chuang)诞(dan)生于上世纪的(de)(de)(de)(de)50年代左右,当(dang)(dang)时美(mei)国(guo)帕森(sen)斯公司(si)接受美(mei)国(guo)空军委托(tuo)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造飞机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)螺旋(xuan)桨加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设(she)备(bei),因(yin)为精(jing)度要求较高,必须(xu)有计算(suan)机(ji)来(lai)(lai)进行数控(kong)(kong)这(zhei)时候该公司(si)在美(mei)国(guo)麻省(sheng)理工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)学院(MIT)伺(si)服机(ji)构研(yan)究室的(de)(de)(de)(de)协助(zhu)下(xia)才开始了数控(kong)(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)应用(yong),在1952年试制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)成功(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)械发(fa)(fa)明了,在过了5年左右的(de)(de)(de)(de)完善1957年这(zhei)种加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设(she)备(bei)被正(zheng)式(shi)(shi)投入使用(yong),这(zhei)也(ye)是现代加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)基本雏形,当(dang)(dang)时我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)国(guo)内也(ye)是工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)兴(xing)起时代在1958年左右我(wo)(wo)(wo)国(guo)也(ye)对数控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设(she)备(bei)进行研(yan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)开发(fa)(fa),此后在随着(zhe)20世纪中(zhong)后期电子技术的(de)(de)(de)(de)高速发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)数字化(hua)信(xin)号控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)机(ji)床(chuang)运动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)变的(de)(de)(de)(de)越(yue)来(lai)(lai)越(yue)成熟,在此以后,从(cong)1960年开始,其(qi)他(ta)一些工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)国(guo)家,如德(de)国(guo)、日本都陆续开发(fa)(fa)、生产(chan)及(ji)使用(yong)了数控(kong)(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)。

 

在时间到(dao)了(le)1960年(nian)左右很(hen)多(duo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)(ye)生(sheng)产(chan)大国(guo)开(kai)始(shi)批(pi)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)配有(you)晶体管数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)三坐标数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床(chuang),到(dao)了(le)1965年(nian)以(yi)后(hou),点(dian)位控(kong)(kong)(kong)制的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)设备得到(dao)了(le)迅速发展(zhan)(zhan),同时也迅速的(de)(de)(de)(de)推动(dong)了(le)坐标镗床(chuang)、数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床(chuang)、冲(chong)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)大量发展(zhan)(zhan),随着数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)不断深(shen)入(ru)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心也开(kai)始(shi)逐渐开(kai)始(shi)成熟,在后(hou)来(lai)一(yi)种(zhong)具有(you)自动(dong)换刀装置的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang),它能实现工(gong)(gong)(gong)件一(yi)次装卡(ka)而(er)进行多(duo)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)并且可以(yi)缩短机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)装卸时间和(he)更换刀具的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间,这就是现在数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)(de)基本形状(zhuang),在到(dao)了(le)上(shang)世纪60年(nian)代(dai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)后(hou)期英国(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)制造(zao)业(ye)(ye)界把几台(tai)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)连接(jie)成具有(you)柔性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)系统(tong),而(er)微(wei)处理器直接(jie)用于数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang),使数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)软件功能加(jia)(jia)强。

 

在到(dao)了80年(nian)代(dai)左右,西方(fang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)机械较为发达的国家开(kai)始出现了1~4台加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)或车削中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)为主体的机床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin),从(cong)此数(shu)(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)慢慢的开(kai)始从(cong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)小批量加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)向大批量加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发展,到(dao)了目前(qian)为止数(shu)(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)已经成为数(shu)(shu)控(kong)机床中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)一种(zhong)非常重(zhong)要的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)机种(zhong)。纵观未来,随(sui)着电(dian)子计(ji)算机的发展以及(ji)微电(dian)子技术(shu)在工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的应用成熟度(du),数(shu)(shu)控(kong)机床的自动化程度(du)也(ye)更为提(ti)高,一些新兴(xing)的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)方(fang)式例如多工(gong)(gong)(gong)序集中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)以及(ji)激光(guang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)等都开(kai)始融(rong)入(ru)了数(shu)(shu)控(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的机械加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)领域,从(cong)而(er)形成了更为综合的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)单元体,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)序更为可靠更有效率,稳(wen)定性则变的更强。


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