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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心是(shi)(shi)一(yi)种可以(yi)对加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件进(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)一(yi)种工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具能(neng)(neng)够(gou)如此快(kuai)速(su)的(de)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)除了因(yin)为高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精密度和成(cheng)熟的(de)技(ji)术之外(wai)更多的(de)还是(shi)(shi)得利与其优秀(xiu)的(de)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统,在(zai)当前的(de)机床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)行(xing)(xing)(xing)业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)为视线高(gao)速(su)稳定(ding)的(de)高(gao)精度加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)运行(xing)(xing)(xing)快(kuai)速(su)且功能(neng)(neng)强大的(de)计(ji)算机数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统是(shi)(shi)必不可少(shao),需要(yao)注(zhu)意的(de)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)统必须(xu)能(neng)(neng)够(gou)足够(gou)快(kuai)地处理数控(kong)(kong)程序代码段以(yi)保持程序中(zhong)(zhong)规定(ding)的(de)进(jin)给速(su)度。

 

高(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心在实际(ji)运行(xing)中(zhong)是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统用于(yu)测量一(yi)次(ci)工(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)实际(ji)位置并发出一(yi)次(ci)进(jin)给命令(ling)所用的(de)时间(jian),对于(yu)伺服周(zhou)期和(he)代码段(duan)(duan)处理时间(jian)是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统的(de)两个(ge)重要参数(shu)(shu)及(ji)其概念。计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统处理并完成一(yi)条加(jia)工(gong)指令(ling)代码段(duan)(duan)规定的(de)位移所花费的(de)时间(jian)。 计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统的(de)这两个(ge)参数(shu)(shu)对于(yu)高(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心来(lai)说非常重要,因为他们(men)将决定机床的(de)加(jia)工(gong)速(su)(su)度和(he)加(jia)工(gong)精度。在这里(li),精度意味(wei)着在采用线(xian)性插补时,用直线(xian)段(duan)(duan)来(lai)逼近零件(jian)轮廊所允许的(de)最大误差。

 

我们(men)可以(yi)(yi)看到在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)必须保(bao)证形成精(jing)确的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹,另外,在(zai)(zai)用直线段来逼近零件轮廊时(shi)(shi),为(wei)了(le)(le)保(bao)证精(jing)度,直线段势必很(hen)短(duan),从而使得零件程(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)变得很(hen)长。基于此(ci),计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)需(xu)(xu)要一个32位的(de)(de)(de)微处理器(qi),有(you)(you)时(shi)(shi)甚至需(xu)(xu)要多个微处理器(qi),以(yi)(yi)完成高(gao)(gao)速(su)插补、高(gao)(gao)速(su)段处理和良(liang)好(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)(de)待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功(gong)能(neng)。为(wei)了(le)(le)能(neng)预先知道刀(dao)具路径(jing)以(yi)(yi)避免(mian)在(zai)(zai)拐角(jiao) 处出现事故(gu),计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)最(zui)好(hao)(hao)是(shi)具有(you)(you)较(jiao)多段加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) NC代码(ma)轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,这与司机(ji)(ji)必须有(you)(you)良(liang)好(hao)(hao)的(de)(de)(de)视野(ye) 范围才能(neng)高(gao)(gao)速(su)驾驶(shi)一辆汽车有(you)(you)些类似(si)。 目前所有(you)(you)较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)水平的(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)都具有(you)(you)待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)能(neng)力。所谓待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)在(zai)(zai)控(kong)(kong)制加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)同时(shi)(shi)扫描待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)代码(ma),看刀(dao)具路径(jing)是(shi)否(fou)有(you)(you)方向上的(de)(de)(de)突然(ran)改(gai)变,如果计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)发(fa)现前面必须改(gai)变进(jin)给方向时(shi)(shi),自(zi)动执行加(jia)减速(su)程(cheng)(cheng)序(xu),以(yi)(yi)避免(mian)高(gao)(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心偏离(li)程(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)中规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)切削加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路径(jing)。


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